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Agriculture and rural development

Razlaga shem kakovosti

Cilji shem kakovosti EU

Politika kakovosti EU je namenjena zaščiti imen specifičnih proizvodov zaradi promocije njihovih edinstvenih značilnosti, povezanih z njihovim geografskim poreklom ter tradicionalnim znanjem in izkušnjami.

Imenom proizvodov se lahko dodeli „geografska označba“, če imajo posebno povezavo s krajem, kjer se izdelujejo. Geografska označba omogoča potrošnikom, da zaupajo kakovostnim proizvodom in razlikujejo med njimi, proizvajalcem pa omogoča boljše trženje proizvodov.

Proizvodi, za katere se proučuje ali jim je bila dodeljena geografska označba, so navedeni v registrih kakovostnih proizvodov. Ti registri vključujejo tudi informacije o geografskih in proizvodnih specifikacijah za vsak proizvod.

Geografske označbe so priznane kot pravica intelektualne lastnine, zato imajo pomembno vlogo v trgovinskih pogajanjih med EU in drugimi državami.

Druge sheme kakovosti EU poudarjajo tradicionalni postopek proizvodnje ali proizvode, pridelane na težavnih naravnih območjih, denimo v gorskem svetu ali na otokih.

Geografske označbe

Geografske označbe uveljavljajo pravice intelektualne lastnine za določene proizvode, katerih lastnosti so posebej povezane z območjem proizvodnje.

Geografske označbe zajemajo:

Sistem geografskih označb EU varuje imena proizvodov, ki izvirajo iz določenih regij ali uživajo sloves, povezan z območjem proizvodnje. Razlike med označbama ZOP in ZGO so predvsem v tem, koliko surovin mora izvirati iz območja ali kolikšen del proizvodnega postopka mora potekati v določeni regiji. GO je posebna označba za žgane pijače in aromatizirana vina.

Zaščitena označba porekla (ZOP)

Kot ZOP se registrirajo imena tistih proizvodov, ki so najtesneje povezani z območjem, na katerem se proizvajajo.

Image: Zaščitena označba porekla (ZOP) logo

Proizvodi

Živila, kmetijski proizvodi in vina.

Specifikacije

Vse faze proizvodnje, predelave in priprave morajo potekati v določeni regiji.

Za vina to pomeni, da mora grozdje izhajati izključno iz geografskega območja, na katerem se proizvaja vino.

Primer

Oljčno olje Kalamata (ZOP) se v celoti proizvaja v regiji Kalamata v Grčiji iz različnih sort oljk tega območja.

Oznaka

– obvezna za živila in kmetijske proizvode
– neobvezna za vino

Zaščitena geografska označba (ZGO)

Označba ZGO poudarja povezavo med specifično geografsko regijo in imenom proizvoda, pri katerem se kakovost, sloves ali druge značilnosti pripisujejo predvsem njegovemu geografskemu poreklu.

Image: Zaščitena geografska označba (ZGO) logo

Proizvodi

Živila, kmetijski proizvodi in vina.

Specifikacije

Za večino proizvodov mora najmanj ena od faz proizvodnje, predelave ali priprave potekati v regiji.

Za vina to pomeni, da mora najmanj 85 % grozdja izhajati izključno iz geografskega območja, na katerem se dejansko proizvaja vino.

Primer

Pršut „Westfälischer Knochenschinken“ (ZGO) se proizvaja v Vestfaliji po starih postopkih, toda meso, ki se uporablja za proizvodnjo, ne prihaja izključno od živali, ki so rojene in vzrejene v tej specifični regiji Nemčije.

Oznaka

– obvezna za živila in kmetijske proizvode
– neobvezna za vino

Geografska označba žganih pijač in aromatiziranih vin (GO)

Označba GO ščiti ime žgane pijače ali aromatiziranega vina s poreklom iz države, regije ali kraja, pri čemer se kakovost, sloves ali druge značilnosti proizvoda pripisujejo predvsem njegovemu geografskemu poreklu.

Proizvodi

Žgane pijače in aromatizirana vina.

Specifikacije

Za večino proizvodov mora vsaj ena od faz destilacije ali priprave potekati v regiji. Vendar ni nujno, da surovine prihajajo iz regije.

Primer

GO Irish Whiskey se že od 6. stoletja vari, destilira in zori na Irskem, vendar surovine ne prihajajo izključno iz Irske.

Oznaka

Neobvezna za vse proizvode

Zajamčena tradicionalna posebnost

Zajamčena tradicionalna posebnost (ZTP) poudarja tradicionalne vidike, kot so način priprave proizvoda ali njegova sestava, brez povezave z določenim geografskim območjem. Ime proizvoda, ki je registrirano kot ZTP, je zaščiteno pred ponarejanjem in zlorabo.

Image: Zajamčena tradicionalna posebnost (ZTP) logo

Proizvodi

Živila in kmetijski proizvodi.

Primer

Tradicionalno pivo Gueuze (ZTP), pridobljeno s spontanim vrenjem, se proizvaja v glavnem v Bruslju in okolici (Belgija). Ker gre za zajamčeno tradicionalno posebnost, je proizvodna metoda zaščitena, vendar bi se lahko pivo proizvajalo drugje.

Oznaka

Obvezna za vse proizvode

Druge sheme

Gorski proizvod

Navedba kakovosti „gorski proizvod“ poudarja posebnosti proizvoda, proizvedenega na gorskih območjih s težavnimi naravnimi razmerami.

Priznavanje tega je prednost za kmete in potrošnike. Kmetom omogoča boljše trženje proizvoda, hkrati pa zagotavlja, da so nekatere značilnosti jasne za potrošnika.

Proizvodi

Kmetijski in živilski proizvodi.

Specifikacije

Surovine in krma prihajajo iz gorskih območij. Za predelane proizvode bi morala tudi proizvodnja potekati v teh območjih.

Poročilo o označevanju kmetijskih in živilskih proizvodov iz gorskega kmetijstva

Proizvod najbolj oddaljenih regij EU

Kmetijstvo v najbolj oddaljenih regijah EU se spopada s težavami zaradi oddaljenosti in otoške lege, ki prinaša težavne geografske in meteorološke razmere. Da bi zagotovili večjo prepoznavnost kmetijskih proizvodov iz najbolj oddaljenih regij EU (francoski čezmorski departmaji – Gvadelup, Francoska Gvajana, Reunion in Martinik – ter Azori, Madeira in Kanarski otoki), je bil oblikovan poseben logotip.

Primer logotipa za najbolj oddaljene regije EU

Proizvodi

Kmetijski in živilski proizvodi.

Specifikacije

Proizvedeno v najbolj oddaljenih regijah

Oznaka

Primer logotipa za kmetijske proizvode in živila iz najbolj oddaljenih regij EU

Prostovoljne certifikacijske sheme

Prostovoljne certifikacijske sheme na nacionalni ravni ali sheme zasebnih subjektov lahko tudi pomagajo potrošnikom, da zaupajo kakovosti proizvodov, ki jih izberejo.

Poleg shem EU obstajajo številne zasebne in nacionalne sheme ali logotipi kakovosti hrane, ki zajemajo širok razpon pobud in se uporabljajo med podjetji ali med podjetji in potrošniki.

Evropska komisija je v posvetovanju z deležniki razvila smernice za najboljše prakse za delovanje takih shem.

Smernice EU o najboljši praksi za prostovoljne sheme certificiranja za kmetijske proizvode in živila
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(183.17 KB - HTML)
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Uredbe o shemah kakovosti

Komisija je sprejela več uredb o uporabi shem kakovosti:

Uredbe o živilih in kmetijskih proizvodih

Uredbe o vinu

Uredbe o žganih pijačah

Uredbe o aromatiziranih vinih

Uredbe o gorskih proizvodih

Uredbe o proizvodih najbolj oddaljenih regij

Predlog za okrepitev sistema geografskih označb

Komisija je 31. marca 2022 sprejela predlog uredbe o geografskih označbah za vino, žgane pijače in kmetijske proizvode ter drugih shemah kakovosti za kmetijske proizvode. Cilj predloga je povečati uporabo geografskih označb po vsej EU, da bi koristili podeželskemu gospodarstvu in dosegli višjo raven zaščite proizvodov, zlasti na spletu. 

Komisija je med drugim predlagala naslednje ukrepe za okrepitev in izboljšanje obstoječega sistema:

  • večja trajnost z omogočanjem proizvajalcem, da v svojih specifikacijah proizvodov ovrednotijo svoje ukrepe v zvezi s socialno, okoljsko in gospodarsko trajnostjo;
  • večja zaščita geografskih označb na internetu, zlasti v zvezi s prodajo prek spletnih platform, zaščito pred registracijami v slabi veri in uporabo geografskih označb v sistemu domenskih imen;
  • opolnomočenje skupin proizvajalcev za upravljanje, uveljavljanje in razvoj njihovih geografskih označb z dostopom do organov za boj proti ponarejanju in carinskih organov v vseh državah EU;
  • skrajšan in poenostavljen postopek registracije bo združil različna tehnična in postopkovna pravila, kar bo privedlo do enotnega postopka registracije geografskih označb za prijavitelje iz EU in iz tretjih držav.

Predlog Komisije je rezultat obsežnega postopka posvetovanja. Začetna ocena učinka je bila objavljena oktobra 2020. Temu so med januarjem in aprilom 2021 sledili javno posvetovanje ter ciljno usmerjena posvetovanja z državami EU in ustreznimi organizacijami deležnikov.

Kako so proizvodi zaščiteni

Kot del sistema EU za pravice intelektualne lastnine so imena proizvodov, registriranih kot geografske označbe, zakonito zaščitena pred ponarejanjem in zlorabo v državah EU in državah zunaj EU, s katerimi je bil podpisan poseben sporazum o zaščiti.

V okviru vseh shem kakovosti pristojni nacionalni organi ustrezno ukrepajo za zaščito registriranih imen na svojem ozemlju. Prav tako morajo preprečiti in ustaviti nezakonito proizvodnjo ali trženje proizvodov, ki uporabljajo tako ime.

Tudi neevropska imena proizvodov se lahko registrirajo kot geografske označbe, če je njihova država porekla podpisala dvostranski ali regionalni sporazum z EU, ki vključuje medsebojno zaščito takih imen.

Zaščitena so imena različnih proizvodov (vino, živila, aromatizirana vina in žgane pijače), proizvedena v več državah zunaj EU, denimo Kolumbiji ali Južni Afriki.

Geografske označbe, za katere je bil vložen zahtevek in so vpisane v registrih Unije, so na voljo na spletišču eAmbrosia (uradna zbirka podatkov o registrih geografskih označb EU), medtem ko so geografske označbe EU in geografske označbe tretjih držav, zaščitene na podlagi sporazumov, na voljo na portalu GIview.

Logotipi za prenos

Zaščitena označba porekla
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(3.56 MB - ZIP)
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Zaščitena geografska označba
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(3.68 MB - ZIP)
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Zajamčena tradicionalna posebnost
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(2.84 MB - ZIP)
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Protected designation of origin (PDO)

Product names registered as PDO are those that have the strongest links to the place in which they are made.

  • Products: food, agricultural products and wines.
  • Specifications: Every part of the production, processing and preparation process must take place in the specific region. For wines, this means that the grapes have to come exclusively from the geographical area where the wine is made.
  • Example: Kalamata olive oil PDO is entirely produced in the region of Kalamata in Greece, using olive varieties from that area.
  • Label: mandatory for food and agricultural products, optional for wine.
Protected geographical indication (PGI)

PGI emphasises the relationship between the specific geographic region and the name of the product, where a particular quality, reputation or other characteristic is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.

  • Products: food, agricultural products and wines.
  • Specifications: For most products, at least one of the stages of production, processing or preparation takes place in the region. In the case of wine, this means that at least 85% of the grapes used have to come exclusively from the geographical area where the wine is actually made.
  • Example: Westfälischer Knochenschinken PGI ham is produced in Westphalia using age-old techniques, but the meat used does not exclusively come from animals born and reared in that specific region of Germany.
  • Label: mandatory for food, agricultural products, optional for wines.
Geographical indication of spirit drinks (GI)

The GI protects the name of a spirit drink originating in a country, region or locality where the product’s particular quality, reputation or other characteristic is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.

  • Products: spirit drinks.
  • Specifications: For most products, at least one of the stages of distillation or preparation takes place in the region. However, raw products do not need to come from the region.
  • Example: Irish Whiskey GI has been brewed, distilled and matured in Ireland since the 6th century, but the raw materials do not exclusively come from Ireland.
  • Label: optional for all products.

Traditional speciality guaranteed

Traditional speciality guaranteed (TSG) highlights the traditional aspects, such as the way the product is made or its composition, without being linked to a specific geographical area. The name of a product being registered as a TSG protects it against falsification and misuse.

  • Products: food and agricultural products.
  • Example: Gueuze TSG is a traditional beer obtained by spontaneous fermentation. It is generally produced in and around Brussels, Belgium. Nonetheless, being a TSG, its production method is protected but it could be produced somewhere else.
  • Label: mandatory for all products.

Other schemes

Mountain product

The quality term ‘mountain product’ highlights the specificities of a product, made in mountain areas, with difficult natural conditions.

Recognising this is an advantage for farmers as well as consumers. It enables farmers to market the product better but also ensures certain characteristics are clear to the consumer.

  • Products: agricultural and food products.
  • Specifications: Raw materials and animal feed comes from mountain areas. For processed products, production should take place in such areas as well.

Report: Labelling of agricultural and food products of mountain farming

Product of EU's outermost regions

Agriculture in the EU’s outermost regions face difficulties due to remoteness and insularity, which brings with it difficult geographical and meteorological conditions. To ensure greater awareness of agricultural products from the EU’s outermost regions (the French Overseas Departments – Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Réunion and Martinique – and the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands) a dedicated logo has been created.

  • Products: agricultural and food products.
  • Specifications: produced in outermost regions
  • Label: logo example for agricultural and food products from the EU’s outermost regions.

Voluntary certification schemes

Voluntary certification schemes at national level or those run by private operators can also help consumers to be confident about the quality of the products they choose.

In addition to the EU schemes, a large number of private and national food quality schemes or logos exist, covering a wide range of initiatives and operating between businesses or between businesses and consumers.

In consultation with stakeholders, the European Commission developed guidelines showing best practice for the operation of such schemes.

Smernice EU o najboljši praksi za prostovoljne sheme certificiranja za kmetijske proizvode in živila
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(183.17 KB - HTML)
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Regulations on quality schemes

The Commission has adopted a number of regulations on the application of quality schemes:

Regulations on food and agricultural products

Regulations on wine

Regulations on spirit drinks

Regulations on aromatised wines

Regulations on mountain products

Regulations on products of outermost regions

Proposal to strengthen GI system

On 31 March 2022, the Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation on GIs for wine, spirit drinks and agricultural products, and other quality schemes for agricultural products. The proposal aims to increase the uptake of GIs across the EU in order to benefit the rural economy and achieve a higher level of protection for products, especially online. 

The Commission has proposed the following measures, among others, to strengthen and improve the existing system:

  • more sustainability by allowing producers to valorise their actions relating to social, environmental and economic sustainability in their product specifications;
  • increased protection for GIs on the internet, specifically with regard to sales via online platforms, protection against bad faith registrations and use of GIs in the domain name system;
  • empowering producers' groups to manage, enforce and develop their GI by having access to anti-counterfeiting authorities and customs in all EU countries;
  • a shortened and simplified registration procedure will merge the different technical and procedural rules, resulting in a single GI registration procedure for EU and non-EU applicants.

The Commission's proposal is the result of an extensive consultation process. An inception impact assessment was published in October 2020. This was followed by a public consultation between January and April 2021, as well as targeted consultations with EU countries and relevant stakeholder organisations.

How products are protected

As part of the EU’s system of IPRs, names of products registered as GIs are legally protected against imitation and misuse within the EU and in non-EU countries where a specific protection agreement has been signed.

For all quality schemes, each EU country’s competent national authorities take the necessary measures to protect the registered names within their territory. They should also prevent and stop the unlawful production or marketing of products using such a name.

Non-European product names can also register as GIs if their country of origin has a bilateral or regional agreement with the EU that includes the mutual protection of such names.

The names of various products (wine, food and spirit drinks) produced in several countries outside the EU, such as Colombia or South Africa, have been protected.

GIs applied for and entered in the Union registers may be consulted on eAmbrosia (the official database of EU GI registers), while both EU and non-EU GIs protected under agreements can be consulted on the GIview portal.

Download logos

Zaščitena označba porekla
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(3.56 MB - ZIP)
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Zaščitena geografska označba
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(3.68 MB - ZIP)
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Zajamčena tradicionalna posebnost
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(2.84 MB - ZIP)
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Documents

Administrative agreement between the Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development and the European Union Intellectual Property Office
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Proposal for a regulation on EU geographical indications for wine, spirit drinks and agricultural products, and quality schemes for agricultural products
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Annex to the proposal for a regulation on EU geographical indications for wine, spirit drinks and agricultural products, and quality schemes for agricultural products
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Commission staff working document – executive summary of impact assessment report on proposal for a Regulation on geographical indications for wine, spirit drinks and agricultural products, and quality schemes
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Commission staff working document – impact assessment report on proposal for a Regulation on geographical indications for wine, spirit drinks and agricultural products, and quality schemes
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Commission staff working document – annex to the impact assessment report on proposal for a Regulation on geographical indications for wine, spirit drinks and agricultural products, and quality schemes
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Regulatory Scrutiny Board opinion – impact assessment report on proposal for a Regulation on geographical indications for wine, spirit drinks and agricultural products, and quality schemes
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