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Agriculture and rural development

ENP South

The EU's agricultural trade with countries in the southern region of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP).

Agri-food trade with ENP South

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) governs the EU’s relations with sixteen of the EU’s closest Eastern and Southern neighbours.

ENP countries are grouped into southern and eastern regions. To the south are Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Syria and Tunisia.

Southern ENP countries are subject to "Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements", which essentially cover trade in goods. In 2011, following the Arab Spring, the Council adopted directives in order to turn the Association Agreements into "DCFTAs" (Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements) for Egypt, Morocco, Jordan and Tunisia, but negotiations have not progressed as expected.

Overall, the EU is a net exporter to these countries and exports mainly beef, sheep meat, cereals and dairy products. In the other direction, the EU mainly imports fruit and vegetables and olive oil.

Countries

Algeria

The relations between the EU and Algeria are governed by the EU-Algeria Association Agreement (AA), in force since 2005.

Algeria is a net importer of EU agri-food products, mainly consisting of wheat, dairy products and live animals. In the other direction, EU mainly imports dates (almost 50%), sugar and miscellaneous seeds from Algeria.

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Ari-food trade statistical factsheet – Algeria
English
(406.33 KB - PDF)
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Egypt

The agricultural trade relations between EU and Egypt are governed by the EU-Egypt Association Agreement (AA) that entered in force on 1 June 2004, its trade and trade-related provisions in force since 1 January 2004. In October 2008, an agreement establishing further liberalisation of trade in agricultural products, processed agricultural products and fish and fishery products was signed and entered into force on 1 June 2010. On this basis, EU exports benefit from duty free access to the Egyptian market for almost all agricultural products, with the exception of tobacco, wines & spirits and pig meat. Egypt's exports to the EU also benefit from full liberalisation, with the exception of the most sensitive products (tomatoes, cucumbers, artichokes, courgettes, table grapes, garlic, strawberries, rice, sugar and processed products with high sugar content),

The EU adopted in December 2011, the mandate for the negotiations of a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) with Egypt but there has been no progress on this in recent years.

The EU is a net exporter of agricultural products to Egypt. It mainly exports wheat, fruit and milk powder while in the other direction the EU imports mainly fruit and vegetables from Egypt (almost 75% of imports).

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Agri-food trade statistical factsheet – Egypt
English
(440.21 KB - PDF)
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Israel

The agricultural trade relations between EU and Israel are governed by the EU-Israel Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement (AA) signed on 20 November 1995 and in force from 1 June 2000. The AA included concessions for bilateral agricultural trade. Further liberalisation was negotiated and concluded in the form of an Agreement on reciprocal liberalisation of agricultural products, processed agricultural products and fish and fishery, in force as of 1 January 2010.

The Agreement is based on the negative list approach (i.e. all agro-food trade liberalised on both sides apart from a limited number of sensitive lines). A significant number of tariff lines were excluded from full liberalisation by both sides. For the EU side, a number of those lines were excluded from any liberalisation (e.g. honey, garlic, sugar, virgin olive oil..) but for most sensitive agricultural products tariff rate quotas were provided, and the EU also maintained its entry price system but with ad valorem duty component set at 0%. AS regards Israel, the excluded lines are either subject to a tariff rate quota or to bound duties at specified levels.

The EU has a large agri-food trade surplus with Israel, consisting mainly of live animals, confectionary, pasta and wheat. In the other direction, the EU mainly imports from Israel fruits and vegetables.

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Agri-food trade statistical factsheet – Israel
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(408.45 KB - PDF)
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Jordan

The agricultural trade relations between EU and Jordan are governed by the EU-Jordan Association Agreement (AA), signed on 24.11.1997, and entered into force on 1.5.2002. The AA was further amended (i.e. further bilateral liberalisation for agricultural and processed agricultural products) in 2005, with effect from 1 January 2006. The Agreement provides for a high level of liberalisation with a very few exceptions and has an asymmetrical nature. Since 2010 (i.e. the last stage of implementation of the liberalisation provisions), all agricultural products originating in Jordan can enter the EU duty free quota free - with the exception of cut flowers and virgin olive oil. In regards to EU exports to Jordan, some products have not been fully liberalised but benefit from a 40% reduction of Jordan's base rate (e.g. wines, grape must and other fermented beverages).

The EU adopted in December 2011, the mandate for the negotiations of a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) with Jordan but there has been no progress on this in recent years.

The EU has a large agri-food trade surplus with Jordan, consisting mainly of wheat, live animals and preparations of fruit and vegetables. In the other direction, the EU mainly imports from Jordan cigars and cigarettes, vegetables and preparations of fruit and vegetables. Poultry is also kept.

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Agri-food trade statistical factsheet – Jordan
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(618.32 KB - PDF)
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Lebanon

The agricultural trade relations between the EU and Lebanon are governed by the-EU-Lebanon Association Agreement (AA), signed on 17.6.2002; its trade aspects came into force on 1 March 2003. The concessions granted to Lebanese products for import into the EU are presented under the "negative list" approach (whatever is not listed has been liberalised), whilst the import conditions applicable to EU products for entering the Lebanese market are explicitly laid down in the Protocol to the Agreement.

The EU has a large agri-food trade surplus with Lebanon, consisting mainly of live animals, cereals and cheese. In the other direction, Lebanon mainly exports to the EU preparations of fruit and vegetables, raw tobacco and animal offal.

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Agri-food trade statistical factsheet – Lebanon
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(402.74 KB - PDF)
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Morocco

The agricultural trade relations between EU and Morocco are governed by the EU-Morocco Association Agreement (AA) that entered in force in 2000. On 1st October 2012, an agreement establishing further liberalisation of trade in agricultural products, processed agricultural products and fish and fishery products entered into force. The concessions granted to Moroccan products for import into the EU are presented under the "negative list" approach (whatever is not listed has been liberalised), whilst the import conditions applicable to EU products for entering the Moroccan market are explicitly laid down in the Protocol to the Agreement. Since then, agri-food trade has increased both ways. The EU is a net exporter of high added-value processed agricultural products, whilst Morocco mainly exports non-processed agricultural products (mainly tomatoes and other fruit and vegetables).

The EU adopted in December 2011, the mandate for the negotiations of a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) with Morocco but there has been no progress on this in recent years.

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Agri-food trade statistical factsheet – Morocco
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(406.76 KB - PDF)
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Palestine*

The agricultural trade relations between EU and Palestine are governed by the Interim Association Agreement (AA) with the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) on behalf of the Palestinian Authority, signed on 24 February 1997. The Interim AA provided for a high level of liberalisation for agri-food products but with some tariff rate quotas for the most sensitive products. On 1 January 2012, further reciprocal liberalisation measures and the replacement of Protocols 1 and 2 to the EC-Palestinian AA, came into force. Palestine benefits from a duty and quota free access to the EU market (with the EU entry price system applicable to some fruits and vegetables imports) for a period of 10 years.

The EU has a large agri-food trade surplus with Palestine, consisting mainly of infant food, confectionary and live animals. In the other direction, the EU mainly imports from Palestine dates and olive oil.

*This designation shall not be construed as recognition of a State of Palestine and is without prejudice to the individual positions of EU Member States on this issue.

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Agri-food trade statistical factsheet – Palestine
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(415.12 KB - PDF)
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Tunisia

The agricultural trade relations between EU and Tunisia are governed by the EU-Tunisia Association Agreement (AA) that entered in force on1st March 1998, and provided for a Free Trade Area including limited liberalization on agriculture.

Negotiations on further reciprocal agricultural concessions to the Association Agreement started in 2009 and were interrupted in November 2010 due to the political events in Tunisia.

The EU adopted in December 2011 the mandate for the negotiations of a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA), covering also Geographical Indications (GIs). The initial “zero” round of negotiations took place in Tunis on 19-22 October 2015. Since then there has been 4 full rounds but negotiations progress very slowly.

The two most important export crops of Tunisia to the EU are dates and olive oil, Tunisia being one of the world’s biggest producer and exporter of olive oil. In the other direction, the EU mainly exports cereals, pet food and milk powder.

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Agri-food trade statistical factsheet – Tunisia
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(414.87 KB - PDF)
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