The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is comprised of Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
The EU imports mostly commodities (rice) and intermediate products, among which animal and vegetable oils (mostly palm oil) are the largest category of imports. Other imported categories of products include coffee and tea, meat preparations, fatty acids and alcohols, and tropical fruits and spices among others.
The EU exports such products as spirits and liqueurs, milk powders, cereal preparations, wine, and dairy products, among others.
Annex 10-B: Protected geographical indications
Agri-food trade statistics
China and Hong Kong
China and Hong Kong are both major suppliers and destinations when it comes to agricultural trade with the EU.
The main categories of products exported by the EU include infant food and other cereals, raw hides and skins, pork meat, wine and spirits. China and Hong Kong are amongst the fastest-growing markets for EU agricultural products.
The main goods imported by the EU include animal products such as meats, offal, and fats, various forms of fruits and vegetables, pet food, wool, and silk.
On 14 September 2020, the EU and China signed a bilateral agreement to protect 100 European geographical indications (GIs) in China and 100 Chinese GIs in the EU against imitations and usurpation. This landmark agreement is expected to result in reciprocal trade benefits and demand for high-quality products on both sides. The EU and China are in the process of finishing their relevant procedure for an entry into force in the coming months.
Agri-food trade statistics
The EU and India are long-standing trading partners in agriculture. Although agriculture exports to India from the EU remain below their potential, the EU continues to view India as a significant emerging market.
India, as a major producer of Basmati rice, supplies most of the total EU imports of Basmati. Other major categories of exports are coffee, fruit, nuts, vegetables, and spices.
The most important exports for the EU are wines and spirits, as well as dairy, olive oil, malt, and a number of processed agricultural products.
On 17 June 2022, the European Union and India launched negotiations for three agreements: a Free Trade Agreement (FTA), an agreement on Geographical Indications (GIs) and an Investment Protection Agreement (IPA). The first round of GI negotiations took place at the end of June 2022.
Japan ranks highly as a destination for EU agricultural and processed agricultural products.
The main products exported by the EU to Japan include pork, wines and spirits, cigars and cigarettes, cheese, chocolate and sugar confectionery and other processed agricultural goods.
The EU imports mainly soups and sauces, vegetable products (vegetable seeds), as well as food and cereal preparations.
The EU has a strong agricultural presence in the Korean market, which is emerging as an important destination for European pork, spirits and wines, dairy products, starches, chocolate and sugar confectionery and other processed agricultural goods.
In turn, the EU imports wheat products, vegetables, fruit, soups, sauces, coffee, and tea from South Korea.
Trade between the EU and South Korea takes largely place under the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), which formally entered into force in December 2015, following ratification by EU Member States.
- provides for a substantial market liberalisation for EU agricultural exports;
- covers valuable tariff rate quotas for several agricultural products;
- foresees mutual protection for EU and South Korean geographical indications by each party;
- establishes several institutional bodies to ensure the smooth development of the EU – South Korean trading relationship, the most important of which is the Committee on Trade in Goods.
Australia is an important trading partner for the EU.
The main agricultural products imported from Australia are oilseeds and wines, while other important products include tropical fruits and nuts, meat (beef, sheep and goat) and wheat.
EU exported products are more diversified, with half of its exports made up of chocolate, confectionery and ice cream; spirits and liqueurs; pasta, pastry, biscuits and bread; pork meat; wines and also fruit and vegetable preparations,
Given the importance of wine in EU-Australia trade, an agreement governing trade in this product was signed by the two parties in 1994 and updated in 2010. The agreement is managed by a Joint Committee, meeting at least annually, and contains provisions that:
- safeguard the EU's wine labelling regime;
- protect geographical indications, including for wines intended for export to third countries;
- commit to the protection of EU traditional expressions;
- provide for the phasing out of the use of a number of important EU names such as Champagne Port, and Sherry on Australian wines within a year of the agreement coming into force.
Beyond the agreement on wine, the importance of this trade relationship has led to the creation of a permanent mechanism for dialogue and consultation on trade topics related to agriculture, ATMEG (Agricultural Trade and Marketing Experts Group). ATMEG is held annually, alternately in the EU and Australia.
Relations between the EU and Australia are set to develop further as negotiations towards an EU-Australia Free Trade Agreement (FTA) that started in June 2018 are entering the final stages after 15 formal rounds over the past 5 years. Elements of importance in the field of agriculture include, among others, agricultural market access, protection of geographical indications, and sanitary and phytosanitary issues. A review of the existing EU-Australia Agreement on Trade in Wine is also under negotiation in view of its modernization.
New Zealand's exports to the EU are dominated by agricultural products. The main products exported by New Zealand to the EU are red meat, dairy, fruit and wine. In fact, New Zealand accounts for a great majority of supplies of sheep and goat meat to the EU market. New Zealand is also an important dairy supplier, providing butter, cheese and caseins. Another major category is fruits – in which dried currants and kiwifruit stand out as the top speciality products provided by New Zealand to the EU. Other important products exported by New Zealand include wool and silk.
EU exports are fewer by comparison, but they are gradually increasing.
The top exported categories include pork meat, spirits and liqueurs, fruit and vegetable preparations, wine and vermouth, other sugar and molasses. The EU also exports fresh dairy products and milk powders.
The Agricultural Trade Talks, a permanent mechanism of dialogue and consultation on trade topics related to agriculture, is convened annually alternately in the EU and New Zealand.
A veterinary agreement to simplify trade in live animals and animal products (while protecting public and animal health) entered into force in 2003 and was updated in 2015.
Relations between the EU and New Zealand are set to develop further, as negotiations for an EU-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement (FTA) were concluded on 30 June 2022. In addition to opening significant economic opportunities for companies and consumers on both sides, the deal also includes unprecedented sustainability commitments, such as respecting the Paris Climate Agreement as well as core labour rights, enforceable through trade sanctions as a last resort.